For a better understanding of our science

A

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

AML is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by an overproduction of certain immature white blood cells, called myeloblasts or leukaemic blasts.

Allogeneic cells

Cells originating from a donor and used in a different patient.

Antibody

A protein that binds specifically to a particular substance-called its antigen. Each antibody molecule has a unique structure that enables it to bind specifically to its corresponding antigen, but all antibodies have the same overall structure and are known collectively as immunoglobulins. Antibodies are produced by differenciated B cells (plasma cells) in response to infection or immunization, and bind to and neutralize pathogens or prepare them for uptake and destruction by phagocytes.

Antigen

Any molecule that can bind specifically to an antibody or generate peptide fragments that are recognized by a T-cell receptor.

Autologous cells

Cells injected to a patient and coming from the same patient

C

CAR T-Cell

A CAR-T cell is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cells) in which a DNA construct, coding for a receptor, has been introduced artificially. The result of this engineered cell is that the T lymphocyte express the CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) on its surface and is able to recognize a specific target through new engrafted receptor.

CYAD-01

CAR-T cell engineered to express the human NK receptor, NKG2D, which is an activating receptor that triggers cell killing through the binding of NKG2D to any of eight naturally occurring ligands that are known to be overexpressed on more than 80% of tumors.

Consistency lots

Lots produced to documented evidence that the process, operated within established parameters, can perform effectively and reproducibly to manufacture a product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes.

Co-stimulatory molecules

During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response. Co-stimulation is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors

Cryopreservation

Cryopreservation is a process where cells or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures. At these low temperatures, any biological activity, including the biochemical reactions that would lead to cell death, is effectively stopped.

CRC (ColoRectal Cancer)

also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS)

is a specific type of infusion reaction that has been most often associated with the use of monoclonal antibodies and T-cell engaging therapies. Following drug infusion, a highlevel activation of the immune system and engagment proliferation of T-cells can result in increased cytokine release. Fever is a hallmark of infusion reactions, and therefore, many infusion reactions can mimic symptoms of an infection.

E

Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)

Stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow (i.e. differentiate) into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

F

Formulation

Formulation is the vehicle and the form in which an active compound is delivered in the body.Formulation is the vehicle and the form in which an active compound is delivered in the body.

Functional Assessment

The capacity of the patient to perform exercice.

G

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

GMP is part of a quality system covering the manufacture and testing of active pharmaceutical products. GMPs are guidelines that outline the aspects of production and testing that can impact the quality of a product.

Graft versus Host disease GvHD

GvHD is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person. GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell or bone marrow transplant but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. Immune cells (white blood cells) in the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as "foreign." The transplanted immune cells then attack the host's body cells.

I

Immunodeficient rodents

A lineage of rodents (like rats or mice) that are genetically lacking some components of the immune system (the system that protects against external aggressions like infections).

In vitro (experiment)

Experiments done outside animal living systems.

In vivo (experiments)

Experiments done in animal living systems.

L

Ligand

A ligand is molecule, as an antibody, hormone, or drug, that binds to a receptor

Lymphodepletive preconditioning

The destruction of lymphocytes and T-cells, by irradiation or chemotherapy, prior to immunotherapy

M

Multiple Myeloma (MM)

MM is a cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells are mature B lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, that help to fight infection by producing special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. In myeloma, large numbers of abnormal plasma cells called myeloma cells are made in the bone marrow.

Multipotent Stem Cells

Cells that have the potential to give rise to cells from multiple, but a limited number of lineages; i.e. multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cells, but only those of a closely related family of cells.

N

NK cell or Natural Killer cell

NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system, which can eliminate targets directly and destroy cells (e.g upon viral infection, or tumor cells)

Neovasculogenesis

Development of new blood vessels.

O

Off-tumor on-target toxicity

Toxicity induced when a CAR-T reaches its target (antigen/ligands) that are expressed on cells that are not tumor cells

Open-label study

A type of study in which both the health providers and the patients are aware of the drug or treatment being given

P

Paracrine

Paracrine signalling is a form of cell signalling in which the target cell is near ("para"= near) the signal-releasing cell.

Proteomics analysis

Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions.

S

ScFv

ScFV stands for Single Chain variable fragment. It is not a fragment of an antibody, but instead a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of antibodies.

Secretome

Term used to describe the set of proteins secreted by a cell, a tissue or an organism.

Sham

A "mock" treatment intended to ensure that patients do not know in which treatment arm of the clinical study they are. Intended to ensure that the study is unbiased by a potential placebo effect.

Stem cells

Stem cells are primal cells. They retain the ability to renew themselves through division and can differentiate into a diverse range of specialised cell types. Stem cells can be found in adult tissues (adult stem cells), embryos (embryonic stem cells or ESCs) or umbilical cord blood.

T

T Lymphocyte (also called T-cell)

type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that play a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

TCR (T-cell Receptor)

TCR is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (or T cells) that is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

V

Validated Test

A test that has been standardized and undergone rigorous evaluation and is now used as a standard by the industry and regulators.